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Basic Operational Management Glossary part 3 from POME by Gautam Koppala

Defence Document - A document that a company's shareholders receive which explains why an offer to buy the company should be rejected.

Deficit Financing - When a government borrows money because of a shortage of funds from taxes. This usually results in pushing up interest rates.

Deflation - Economic decline typified by falling costs of goods and services; falling levels of employment; limited money supply or credit; reduced imports; lower wage increases, often caused by lower personal spending or investment, and/or a reduction in government spending. Deflation is broadly the opposite of inflation.

Delegation - An assignment of responsibility or task, usually by a manager to a subordinate.

Deleveraging - An attempt by a company to reduce its debts, for example by selling off assets, laying off staff, etc.

Demerit Goods - Products or services such as as alcohol, gambling, drugs, prostitution, etc., which are considered unhealthy or undesirable, and are often subject to extra taxes in order to reduce consumption and potentially to fund remedial actions in response to consumption.

Democracy - Majority rule, by which the biggest proportion of members of a group determine decisions for the whole group. Democracy typically refers to a country's political system, in which government is elected through majority vote.

Demographic Profile - Used in marketing to describe a particular segment of the population, for example social class, age, gender, income, etc.

Demographic Segmentation - The process of identifying and dividing consumers into groups according to their race, age, gender, religion, etc.

Demonetize - To officially decide that a particular coin or banknote can no longer be used as currency.`

Deposition - A sworn statement of evidence by a witness taken outside of the court proceedings before a trial.

Depreciation - The gradual erosion of the usability and value (possibly due to obsolescence) of an enterprise's fixed assets. In some cases depreciation can be declared as a tax deduction.

Deregulate - The reduction or removal of government regulations from an industry or business.

Derived Demand - Demand for a service or goods which is created by the demand for another service or goods, such as the demand for steel to make cars.

Desk Jockey - An informal term for someone who spends their working day sitting behind a desk, and who is concerned about administration.

Didactic - Describes works of literature or art which are intended to be be informative or instructional, especially morally, rather than entertaining. From the ancient Greek word didaskein, which means to teach.

Direct Marketing - The marketing of products, services, etc., directly to individual potential customers by sending them catalogues, leaflets, brochures, etc., by mail (including e-mail), calling them on the telephone or calling door-to-door.

Direct Overhead - A portion of the overheads, e.g. lighting, rent, etc., directly associated with the production of goods and services.

Direct Sales Method - selling direct to the end user with promotional efforts using advertising, direct mail or telephone sales.

Directives - At an official level, directives are instructions, guidelines or orders issued by a governing or regulatory body. They may amount to law. In a less formal way a directive equates to an instruction issued by an executive or manager or organizational department.

Director - A person appointed to oversee and run a company or organisation along with other directors, In the entertainment industry, the person who directs the making of a film, TV program, etc.

Dirty Money - Money made from illegal activities which needs 'laundering' so that it appears to be legitimate.

Disability Discrimination Act - An Act of Parliament passed in Britain in 1995 which promotes the civil rights of disabled people and protects them from discrimination in employment, education, renting property, access to transport, etc.

Disburse - To pay out money from a large fund, e.g. a treasury or public fund.

Discount Loan - A loan on which the finance charges and interest is paid before the borrower receives the money.

Discount Window - In the US, when banks can borrow money from the Federal Reserve at low interest rates.

Discretionary Income - The amount of income a person is left with after taxes and living essentials, such as food, housing, etc., have been deducted.

Discretionary Order -  Permits a broker to buy or sell shares on behalf of an investor in order to get the best price.

Discriminating Duty - A variable tax levied on goods depending from which country they were imported.

Dispatch Note - Also called Dispatch Advice. A document giving details of goods which have been dispatched or are ready to be dispatched to a customer.

Distributable Profit - A company's profits which are available for distribution among shareholders at the end of an accounting period.

Distributer - An individual or company who buys products, usually from manufacturers, and resells them to retail outlets or direct to customers. A wholesaler.

Distribution Channel - the path your product follows to be delivered to the end user. This may be through distributors, retail outlets, self service outlets, vending machines, telephone sales, direct mail sales, etc.

Distributor - an enterprise that purchases your products for resale to their customers who are usually retail outlets. The distributor expects to receive a significant price discount for providing the distribution service.

Diversification - The act of growing a business by enlarging or varying its range of products, services, investments, etc.

Dividend - A portion of profits paid by a company to its shareholders.

Dog - An informal slang term for an investment which has shown a poor performance. The slang term dog may also refer to other poor-performing elements within a business, for example a product or service within a company range, as in the widely used 'Boston Matrix'.

Dollar-Cost Averaging - Known in the UK as Pound-Cost Averaging. The practice of investing a fixed amount of money at fixed times in particular shares, whatever their price. A higher share price means less shares are purchased and a lower share price means more shares can be purchased.

Dolly - In the entertainment industry, a piece of equipment on wheels which allows the camera to move smoothly for long walking shots.

Double - In the film and TV industry, a person who stands in, or is substituted, for a principal actor.

Double Indemnity - A clause in a life insurance policy where the insurance company agrees to pay double the face value of the policy in the event of accidental death.

Double-Blind - A method of testing a new product, usually medicine, in which neither the people trying the product nor those administering the treatment know who is testing the real product and who has been given a placebo containing none of the product.

Double-dip recession - A recession during which there is a brief period of economic growth, followed by a slide back into recession.

Double-dipping - The practice, usually regarded as unethical, of receiving two incomes or benefits from the same source, for example receiving a pension and consultancy income from the same employer.

Double-Entry Bookkeeping - An accounting method which results in balanced ledgers, i.e., for every transaction a credit is recorded in one account and a debit is recorded in another.

Doula - A birthing or labour coach, from the greek word doule, meaning female slave.

Drayage - The fee charged for, or the process of, transporting goods by lorry or truck.

Drip Advertising - An advertising campaign in small amounts over a long period of time to ensure that the public is continually aware of a product or service.

Drum-Buffer-Rope - A method, usually in manufacturing, which ensures an efficient flow of work in a production process by taking into consideration any possible delays or problems which may occur.

Duopoly - Two companies, or a situation, in which both companies control a particular industry.

Dutch Auction - A type of auction which opens with a high asking price which is then lowered until someone accepts the auctioneers price, or until the sellers reserve price has been reached.

Dystopia - The opposite of Utopia, a society in which conditions are characterised by human misery, depirvation, squalor, disease, etc. The term is said to have been coined by by John Stuart Mill in 1868 in a UK House of Commons speech criticizing government's Irish land policy.

Earnest Money - Money paid in good faith as a deposit, usually for a property, to show that the buyer is serious about doing business with the vendor.

Earn-Out - An arrangement in which an extra future conditional payment is made to the seller of a business in addition to the original price, based upon certain criteria being met.

Easterlin Paradox - A theory that beyond satisfaction of basic needs, increasing wealth of a country does not produce increasing happiness, suggested by US professor of economics Richard Easterlin based on his research published in 1974.

Easy Monetary Policy - A policy which enables the public to borrow money easily, at low interest rates, in order to expand the economy by investing the money in business activities.

E-Business - Electronic Business. Using the internet to conduct business or enable businesses to link together.

E-Commerce - Electronic Commerce. The buying and selling of products and services over the Internet.

Econometrics - Using mathematics and statistics to study the economy.

Economic Growth - An increase in a region's or nation's production of goods and services.

Economic Life - The period of time during which an asset, e.g. property, vehicle, machinery, etc., is expected to be usable, including repairs and maintenance, before a replacement is required.

Economic Union - Also known as a Common Market. An agreement between a group of countries which allows the free flow of goods, services, labour, etc., between the member countries and usually has a common currency.

Economies Of Scale - In manufacturing, the more units being made the cheaper each unit costs to produce.

Economy - The management of money, currency and trade of a nation. The efficient management of resources.

Ecotourism - Nature based travel to unspoilt places in the world with a view to conservation and to bring economic benefit to the local people. Also known as Ecological Tourism.

E-Currency - Electronic currency. Used on the Internet for making and receiving payments. Companies which provide this service include Paypal and E-Gold.

Edutainment - Products or media which both educate and entertain at the same time, such as TV, books, computer software.

E-Enabled - Being able to communicate and/or conduct business using the internet.

  1. Effort will produce success.

Egalitarian - Believing that everyone is equal and should all have the same rights and opportunities in life.

E-Lance - Freelance working using the Internet to sell services or goods anywhere in the world.

Elasticity Of Demand - The measure of whether people require more or less of a product or service after a price change.

Electronic Cottage - A home which has the necessary electronic equipment, such as telephone, computer, etc., from which to run a business.

Electronic Data Exchange - A means of exchanging documents between businesses using electronic equipment such as computers.

Electronic Purse - A type of microchipped smartcard which stores small amounts of money to enable payment for purchases, especially on the Internet, instead of having to use cash.

Embezzlement - Dishonestly appropriate goods or money from one's employer for personal gain; steal from one's employer, typically by electronic administrative methods, thus abusing a position of trust or responsibility.

Emolument - Total wages, benefits or compensation paid to someone for the job they do or the office they hold.

Emoticon - Used in e-mails, internet chat rooms and text messages, symbols which represent facial expressions, e.g. 🙂 = smile.

Emotional Capital - Emotional experiences, values and beliefs of a company's employees that make good working relationships and a successful business. Low emotional capital can result in conflict between employees, low morale and poor customer relations.

Emotional Intelligence - The ability or skill of a person to understand and control their emotions, and to understand and assess and respond appropriately to the feelings and situations of others. Commonly abbreviated to EQ (Emotional Quotient, alluding to the concept of IQ - Intelligence Quotient), Emotional Intelligence theory seeks to enable a sophisticated practical appreciation and application of the concept of intelligence, especially in work, management, leadership and human relationships.

Empirical - Information derived from experience, observation or experiment rather than from theory or subjective opinion. From Greek - empeiros, meaning skilled - in turn from peira, meaning trial or experiment.

Employee - An individual who is hired and paid by another person, company, organisation, etc., to perform a job or service.

Employee Buyout - A transaction in which employees purchase all or most of a company's shares, thereby gaining control of the company.

Employee Ownership - A business model and constitutional framework in which staff hold significant or majority shares of a company, thereby ensuring higher levels of loyalty and commitment, and fairness in the way that business performance relates to employee reward. The John Lewis Partnership is one of the prime and most successful examples of the concept.

Employee Self Service - An Internet based system which enables an employee to access their personal records and payroll details, so they can change their own bank account details, contact details, etc.

Employee Stock Option -  Allows specified employees the right to purchase shares in the company at a fixed price.

Employer - A person, business, organisation, etc., that pays for the services of workers.

Employment Equity - Promotes equal employment opportunities for everyone, regardless of gender, race, ability, etc.

Employment Law - Also known as Labour Law. The branch of the law that deals with the legal rights of employees, e.g. workplace safety, discrimination, compensation, etc.

Encrypt - Convert data into code which cannot be easily understood by people who have no authorisation to view it.

End Consumer - An individual who buys and/or uses a product or service.

End Marker - Used at the end of a take in a film, TV program or audition to cover a mistake or to remind people who the person auditioning was during auditions.

Enterprise - A company or business. A business project, often one which is sometimes difficult and/or risky.

Enterprise Application Integration - Software technology that links computer programs, data bases, etc., within an organisation, so that information can be shared.

Entrenpreneur - An ambitious person who starts new business ventures in order to make a lot of money, often taking financial risks.

Environmental Impact Assessment - The effect that a proposed project, such as a new building or development, will have on the environment.

Environmentalist - An individual who is concerned about the protection, conservation and improvement of the natural environment.

E-Procurement - Electronic procurement. Businesses using the internet to purchase from, or sell goods and services to, other businesses.

Equal Pay Act - In Britain, a government Act of 1970 which gives women the right to earn the same money and to receive the same benefits as men for performing the same job.

Equilibrium Price - The price at which the demand of a particular product or service is equal to the quantity supplied.

Equity - a percentage ownership of an enterprise, usually in the form of stock.

Equity Accounting - When a company records, in its financial records, profits which can be claimed from an affiliated company which they part own.

Escape Clause - A condition in a contract which allows the contract to be broken in particular circumstances.

E-Tailer - An retailer who uses the internet to sell goods and/or services to the public.

Ethics Committee - In medicine, an independent body which is appointed to examine and consider the rights and safety of people taking part in clinical trials.

Ethnic Monitoring - Recording and evaluating the racial origins of employees in a company to ensure that all races are represented fairly.

Euroland - Also known as the Eurozone. All the countries in the EU (European Union) that use the Euro as currency.

European Union - EU. Previously called the European Community. An international, economical and political organisation which brought the nations of Europe together so that people, goods, money, services, etc., can move freely between member nations.

Ex Gratia - Something given or carried out as a favour or gift, rather than as a legal duty.

Ex Officio - Someone who has a right to be included because of their job or position, e.g. to sit on a committee. (Latin - by virtue of office or position)

Ex Stock - Goods which are available for immediate delivery because the supplier has them in stock.

Ex Works - Goods which are delivered to the purchaser at the plant or place where they are manufactured. The purchaser then pays for transporting and insuring the goods from that point.

Exchange Rate - Also known as Foreign Exchange Rate. The rate, which can vary from day to day, at which a country's currency can be exchanged for another country's currency.

Exchange Rate Exposure - When a business risks losing money because of the need to change one currency for another of lower value.

Execution Risk - The risk that a company's plans, or a project, will fail because of changes being made, e.g. entering a new market, bad management, etc.

Executive Director - Also called Internal Director. A person who usually works as a full-time senior employee for a company, and is responsible for the day to day running of the business, and is often a member of the company's board of directors.

Exit Strategy - Also called Harvest Strategy. A plan by an investor to dispose of an investment, such as shares in a company, to make a profit, or a business owner to dispose of their company, e.g., by selling the business, floating it on the stock market, ceasing to trade, handing it over to another family member, etc.

Expectancy Theory - A theory of motivation developed by Canadian Victor Vroom, Yale professor of management and psychology, established in his 1964 book, Work and Motivation, which essentially states that motivation necessarily comprises and is determined by three elements of belief:

Experience Curve - In business, when costs fall and production increases as a result of increase in workers skills and lower material costs.

Export Credit - A loan taken out by an importer with a bank in an exporters country, so that the importer can buy foreign goods and pay for them at a later date.

Export Factoring - A facility offered by banks to exporters. The bank is responsible for collecting payments for exported goods, so that the exporter can borrow money from the bank before the goods have been paid for by the customers.

Exposition - A public event at which businesses, that produce related goods, can showcase their products and/or services.

Extension Strategy - A marketing strategy to stop a product going into decline by making small changes to it, reaching new customers or finding new uses for it, e.g. a drink which was sold as an aid to those recovering from illness is now sold as a sports drink.

External Competitiveness - Being able to sell goods and services to customers in foreign countries at a competitive price.

External Debt - Also known as Foreign Debt. Money that is owed by the government, organisations or individuals to creditors in other countries.

External Equity - A situation in which an organisation's employees receive similar pay for the same type of work as employees in other organisations, i.e., pay which is equal to market rates.

Extrapolation - The estimation or determination of what will happen in the future by extending (extrapolating) known information or data. The verb usage 'extrapolate' is common and means using mathematics or other logical process to extend a proven trend or set of data. 'What if?..' scenarios and business modelling generally involves some sort of extrapolation. It's a way of predicting something by assuming a historical pattern will continue into the future.

Eyeballs - Advertising term. A name given to the number of people who visit a website advertisement, which can be counted by the number of click-throughs.

E-Zine - An electronic magazine which is published on the internet, or delivered by e-mail.

Factory Floor - The area of a factory where the goods are made. Also the collective name of the ordinary workers in a factory, rather than management.

Factory Price - The price charged for goods direct from the factory, not including transport costs, etc. Factory Price is often quoted by retailers or in advertisements to show that products are for sale at a very low price.

Fairy Dust - A term often used in the entertainment business. The final enhancement or touch on a project. The unknown factor which turns something great into something fantastic.

Fallen Angel - Term used in finance to describe bonds which once had a good investment value, but have now dropped in value to a much lower rating.

False Accounting - A criminal offence. Giving false information in, or destroying, a company's accounts, usually for personal gain. Fraud.

False Bottom - On the stock market, selling prices which seem to have already hit their lowest level because of a subsequent price rise then fall through a false bottom because the price falls even lower.

Fashion Goods - goods where style is important and price is secondary. These products could include clothing, jewelry, furniture, draperies, and dishes, but can sometimes be stretched into other areas such as umbrellas, walking canes, cigarette holders, etc.

Fast Track - Quick route in a career to success and promotion, associated with high ambition.

Fat Cat - A wealthy person living off investments or dividends, or a chief executive of a large company or organisation who is on a very large salary, huge pension, etc.

Fault Tolerance - Enables a system, especially in computing, to continue to operate properly even though a component in the system has failed.

Feasibility Study - A preliminary assessment of a new project, including costs, risks, etc., to determine whether the project will be successful and practical.

Feather-Bedding - A term often used in industry describing the practice of hiring more workers than is necessary to carry out a job, often because of a contract with a union.

Federation - An organisation which has been formed by the joining together of a group of companies, clubs, etc.

Fidelity Bond - Also known as Fidelity Insurance. Protects an employer against any losses incurred because of dishonesty, or damage caused, by an employee.

Fiduciary - Describes an organisation or individual who manages money or property for a beneficiary.

Figurehead - In business, organizations, politics, etc., a person who holds an important position or office but lacks real power or authority; a 'front man'. Derived from the carved painted figurehead models which traditionally were fixed to the front of sailing ships.

Filibuster - A person who attempts to delay or obstruct legislation by giving long speeches, but does not contravene rules concerning proceedings.

Fill or kill - Also FOK, on the stock exchange, an instruction received by a broker from a client to buy or sell specified shares immediately or not at all.

Filofax - A personal organiser (and the name of the company which makes it), which was very popular in the 1980s, with pages which can be easily removed or added. This product was associated with 'Yuppies'.

Finance - To provide or obtain funds for a business, commercial project, an individual, etc. The management of money. To sell or provide goods on credit.

Financial Engineering - The practice of solving financial problems or creating financial opportunities in a company, by changing the way money is borrowed, debts paid, etc.

Financial Equity - The ownership of interest in a company, usually in the form of shares.

Firepower - The amount of power, money and/or influence that is available to a business or organisation.

Firmware - Describes the fixed programs, which cannot be lost or changed, in electronic devices such as digital cameras, calculators, remote controls, etc.

First Mover - A business that gains an advantage by being the first to establish itself in a specific market by producing a new product or offering a new service, or by being the first to use new technology.

First Order Of Business - The most important task to be dealt with.

Fiscal Drag - A situation in which wages rise because of inflation but income tax thresholds are not increased, which can push people into higher tax brackets and therefore makes them pay an increased proportion of their wages in tax.

Fiscal Policy - A government policy to regulate a nation's annual economic activity by setting tax levels and determining government expenditure.

Five Nines - Refers to the 99.999% of the time that some companies claim their computer systems work properly.

Fixed Assets - (sometimes called long term assets) these are usually non-liquid assets that are integral to the enterprise's day-to-day business operations such as plants, equipment, furniture and real estate.

Fixed Assets - Assets, such as property, equipment, furniture, vehicles, etc., which are owned by a company and which are needed to operate the business.

Fixed Costs - Costs, or overheads , which are incurred by a business whether or not it is operating or generating income, such as wages, rent, insurance, utilities (for example electricity, gas, water), etc.

Fixed Costs - The day-to-day cost of doing business that is pre-committed, such as salaries, insurance, lease expenses, utilities, etc.

Fixed Parity - In foreign exchange, when the currency of one country is equal in value to the currency of another country.

Fixed Term Contract - Also known as Temporary Contract. A contract of employment which ends on a specific date, or on completion of a task or project. Fixed term employees have the rights to the same pay, conditions and benefits as full-time employees.

Fixer - A person who makes arrangements for someone else, usually for a fee, by using their influence and often underhand, illegal methods.

Flame - To send a rude or unacceptable message by e-mail, or to post a message on an Internet forum which is offensive or inciteful.

Flexecutive - A manager who works flexible hours, often from home using the Internet. A multi-skilled executive who can change tasks or jobs with ease.

Flexitime - A work system in which employees work a set number of hours each week or month, but they decide when they are going to start and finish each day, usually between a range of given working hours.

Flight Capital - The movement of large sums of money from one of investment to another, or from one country to another, to avoid high taxes or financial instability due to political unrest.

Flighting - A cost effective method of advertising. A commercial is scheduled to appear on TV, usually when viewing figures are high (flight). There are periods in between the flights when the commercial does not appear on TV (hiatus). During the TV hiatus the product being advertised will often appear in newspapers or magazines, so the public is continually aware of it.

Floatation - See definition for Flotation.

Floor Limit - In retailing, the highest amount of money for a sale for which a debit or credit card can be used by a customer without authorisation from the customer's bank.

Floor Trader - Also known as a Local. An investor who is allowed on the trading floor of a stock exchange, to buy and sell shares, etc., for their own account.

Flotation - The process of financing a company by selling shares on the stock exchange for the first time.

Flyback - Also known as a Callback. A series of screening interviews for a job during which a person, usually a student, is interviewed several times, often on the same same day, by the prospective employer.

Flynn Effect - Research showing that the results of IQ (Intelligence Quotient) tests in various countries (i.e. internationally) have risen consistently over several decades, (after political scientist James R Flynn).

Focus List - A list of companies, recommended by an investment firm, whose shares are worth buying or selling.

Footer - In a report or document, a line or block of text that appears at the bottom of every page which is printed from a computer.

Footfall - The extent or measure of numbers of people who visit a business or shop or other retail/leisure/entertainment venue during a given period of time. Footfall is a crucial factor in retailing methods, and also in promotion and advertising which focuses on the physical presence - on foot - of consumers at a particular location.

Force Field Analysis - A technique developed by Kurt Lewin to support positive factors and decrease negative factors, as the result of a change in an organisation.

Force Majeure - A clause in a contract which exempts the contracting party (e.g. insurer) from liability in the event of an unforeseen catastrophe, such as war, act of God, etc.

Forex - Also called FX, refers to Foreign Exchange, in which foreign currencies are bought and sold.

Fortune 500 - Published by Fortune magazine, an annual list of the 500 US corporations with the largest revenue.

Forward Integration - A business strategy whereby a company takes control of its distributors, therefore guaranteeing the distribution of the controlling company's products.

Forwarding company - Also called a 'freight forwarder', a company specialising in transfer of freight from businesses or individuals by finding an appropriate transporter of the goods.

Four-Colour Process - In printing, the use of four ink colours - yellow, magenta, cyan and black - which are combined together to produce the whole spectrum of colours.

Fractional Ownership - An arrangement where a number of people or companies each buy a percentage of an expensive asset, such as a property. The individual owners then share the asset, and when it is sold the profits are distributed back to the owners.

Franchise - An authorisation or licence - effectively a business, which can be bought - enabling someone (franchisee) to use the franchisor's company name and trademarks to sell their products services, etc., and usually to receive certain support, in a particular area of a country. A franchise for a whole country is typically called a master franchise.

Free Collective Bargaining - A situation in which workers and union members meet with employers to discuss working conditions, pay, etc., in talks that are not limited by law or government.

Free Enterprise - An economic system in which private businesses have the freedom to compete with each other for profit, with minimal interference from the government.

Free Market - A market in which prices of goods and services are affected by supply and demand, rather than government regulation.

Free On Board - Maritime trade term. The supplier delivers the goods to a ship at a specified port. The supplier then pays the shipping costs after obtaining official clearance. Once they have been put on board, the buyer is then responsible for the goods.

Free Port - A port where goods can be brought and stored temporarily, without custom duties having to be paid, before being shipped to another country.

Free Rider - A person or organisation that enjoys benefits and services provided by others, and doesn't pay their fair share of the costs.

Free Zone - An area in a country where importers can store foreign goods, prior to further transportation, without having to pay customs duties or taxes on them.

Freeconomics - A situation in which companies provide certain goods and services for free, and those businesses who don't follow suit are likely to fail.

Freedom Of Association - The right of individuals to join together to form, or join an existing, group or organisation, including a union.

Freepost - A UK postal system, usually used in business, in which the recipient business pays the postage on mail, rather than the sender or customer.

Freeware - Computer software that is copyrighted by the author and offered, usually on the Internet, free of charge.

Frictional Unemployment - Unemployment of people who are temporarily between jobs, changing careers, changing location, etc.

Fringe Benefit - A benefit given to employees in addition to their salary, such as a company car, pension scheme, paid holidays, etc.

Front-End Load - A fee charged for an investment, for example an insurance policy, limited partnership, mutual fund, etc. The fee is made with the initial payment, and subsequent payments are therefore lower.

Fulfilment House - A company which is paid for its services by another company, for example for dealing with mail, processing orders, etc.

Full Service Retail Sales Method - selling from a sales outlet directly to the end user at retail prices with sales personnel who can explain the purpose and value of the product or service.

Full-Time Contract - FT. A permanent or ongoing contract of employment in which the employee works at least the standard number of hours in a working week, usually 35.

Fungible - Describes goods or commodities which can be exchanged for something of the same kind, of equal value and quality.

Gaffer - In the entertainment industry, a member of a film crew who handles the lighting equipment.

Gagging Clause - A clause in an employment contract which prevents an employee from disclosing certain information about the company to the press, union officers, etc.

Gagging Order - A legal order issued by a court to prevent the public reporting of a court case.

Gainsharing - Also called profit sharing. An incentive system which enables employees to have a share in a company's profits.

Game Theory - Sometimes called Games Theory, this is a potentially highly complex branch of mathematics increasingly found in business which uses the analysis of competing strategies (of for example market participants) and their effects opon each other to predict and optimise outcomes and results. Relates strongly to cause and effect and chaos theory. Game Theory may also arise in military strategy.

Gantt Chart - Developed by Henry Gantt in 1917. A type of bar chart which illustrates the scheduled and completed work of a project. It shows start and finish dates, compares work planned to work done and tracks specific tasks.

Gap Analysis - Enables a company to assess the gap between its actual performance and its potential performance, by comparing what skills, products, etc. are available to what is required to improve performance, output, etc.

Garden Leave - Also called Gardening Leave. Term used when an employee's contract has been terminated but they are instructed by the company to stay away from work, on full pay, during their notice period. Often to prevent them from working for competitors during that time.

Garnish - To take part of someone's wages, by law, to pay their debts, e.g. child support, alimony.

Gatekeeper - A person in an organisation who controls access to the people in the organisation, and/or controls access to information or goods.

Gazelle - A US term for a fast growing company that creates a lot of job opportunities, and which has grown by at least 20% in the last four years.

Gazump - In selling and buying property, a term used to describe when a purchaser has an offer accepted by the vendor but is then gazumped because someone else makes the vendor a higher offer which the vendor then accepts instead of the first person's offer.

Geek Speak - Technical language often used by computer experts which doesn't make sense to non-technical people.

General Creditor - A person or company that lends unsecured money, so that the creditor is unlikely to recover much of the loan if the debtor goes bankrupt or does not pay it back.

General Strike - Widespread withdrawal of labour by a nation's workforce, which aims at bringing the country to a standstill because of a disagreement over pay and/or working conditions. -

Generalist - A person who has a broad general knowledge at a high level, and/or many skills.

Generation X - A term used for people born during the 1960s and 1970s, who are often described as disaffected and irresponsible.

Gerontocracy - A government or political system which is ruled by old men (elders).

Get All Your Ducks In A Row - A term for getting organised, having everything in order and making sure all the small details are accounted for before embarking on a new project.

Get Go - From the start, the earliest stage of something. Used in the phrase 'From the get go.'

Gift Tax - A tax payable on gifts over a certain annual value made during the lifetime of the giver.

Giro - A system, used in some countries, of transferring money from one bank or post office account into another using a central computer.

Giveback - An agreement in which employees accept a wage reduction or fewer benefits as a gesture of goodwill, usually because of an economic downturn. The employees are often offered wage rises and new benefits at a later date.

Glamour Stock - A company's shares, which are very popular with investors, because they have performed well on the stock exchange.

Glamping - A portmanteau word meaning 'glamorous camping', for example staying in a posh serviced yurt (a large Mongolian-style nomadic tent) and eating luxury hamper foods.

Glass Ceiling - An invisible barrier in the workplace which prevents women and minority groups from advancing to positions of leadership in a company, although some do manage to 'break through' the glass ceiling.

Glass Wall - An imaginary barrier in the workplace which prevents women and minority groups from being employed in other sectors of business or industry.

Glitterati - Combination of Glitter and Literati. Glamorous, rich, famous people, often connected to show business.

Global Village - A term used to describe the whole world as a single community, connected by electronic communication systems, such as the Internet.

Globalisation - The process of integrating nations, economically and socially, through free trade, international business activities, technology (for example the Internet), etc.

Glocalisation - Global Localisation. A term used when an international company adapts its manufacturing methods, products or services to suit local conditions.

Gofer - From 'Go for'. An employee who runs errands, as well as doing their normal job, usually in an office or on a film set. A dogsbody.

Gold Reserve - The amount of gold bullion or gold coins held by a country's central bank to support its currency and provide security for its international debts.

Golden Formula - In the UK, a term used to describe industrial action, or strikes, which are legal, i.e., about matters connected to working conditions and employment, rather than political matters, and that workers striking for legal reasons should not lose their jobs.

Golden Handcuffs - Financial incentives or benefits given to a valued employee to ensure that they continue working for a company, and to discourage them from wanting to leave to work for another company.

Golden Handshake - Usually offered to high-ranking executives in a large company. A clause in their contract which provides them with a large sum of money and/or other benefits in the event of them losing their job or retiring.

Golden Parachute - A company's agreement with an employee, usually a top executive, which promises a significant amount of money and/or benefits if the employee is forced to leave their job, usually because of a change of company ownership, outside of the control of the original employer company.

Gone To The Wall - Describes a business which has failed.

Goodwill - The difference or premium which a purchaser pays, or which a seller asks, for a business or company compared to the 'book value' of its assets, typically representing intangibles such as brand value, intellectual property, talent, market relationships, etc., and which tend to reflect the overall value and appeal with which the purchaser regards the target acquisition. Over-estimating goodwill value, sometimes to an extraordinarily stupid degree, is a surprisingly common downfall of many big corporate takeover deals, when arrogance and blindness to market trends of the acquiring CEO and takeover team can lead to a reckless waste of shareholder funds and ruthless cost-cutting, post-acquisition, when performance, synergies and return on investment fail to reach required levels.

Googlewhack - Two proper words (found in a dictionary) which together produce just a single result from a normal Google search. A googlewhack tends not to retain its status indefinitely, and sometimes only fleetingly, because due to the strange popularity of the effect, googlewhacks are likely to be published on the web when discovered, which immediately produces a second occurrence. Aside from the study of language and statistics there is no earthly purpose for this phenomenon, which apparently was first described by Gary Stock in 2001 and who runs a website dedicated to the concept.

Grace - A period of time given to a debtor to enable them to pay an overdue bill or loan, or extra time given in a contract for a piece of work to be finished.

Grandfather Clause - A provision in a new law which allows the person or business already engaged in the activity. which may have been made illegal, to continue to do so.

Graphology - The study of handwriting, often used as a way of analysing a person's character.

Grass Roots - The ordinary people in a business or organisation, rather than the management or the decision-makers.

Gratis - To do or give something without payment. Free of charge.

Graveyard Market - A term used on the Stock Exchange to describe a Bear Market in which share owners are reluctant to sell because they face substantial losses, and buyers are reluctant to buy because the financial outlook is poor. Those who are in it can't get out, and those who are on the outside have no desire to get in.

Gravy Train - A business activity which makes a large profit for an individual or an organisation without much effort. To have it easy.

Green Audit - Also called Environmental Audit. An official assessment which shows the effect that an organisation or a company has on the environment.

Green Card - In the US, a legal document which allows an immigrant to become a permanent resident, to work legally and to become eligible for citizenship.

Green Taxes - Also called Ecotax. Taxes which are levied on companies, businesses, etc., to discourage activities which will harm the environment.

Greenback - An informal term for US paper money, i.e., the dollar, derived from the colour of the money.

Grey Knight - A third person, or company, who makes an unsolicited bid in a corporate takeover, and who takes advantage of any problems which arise between the first bidder (White Knight) and the company being acquired.

Grip - In the film and TV industry, a member of the film crew who makes sure that the lighting is right for a scene. They also move scenery and set up large pieces of equipment.

Gross Profit - revenues less cost of sales.

Gross Profit Margin - Expressed as a percentage, what is left from a company's sales after cost of goods sold is paid out. Gross profit margin is obtained by dividing gross income by net sales.

Guru - An influential teacher or an expert in a particular subject who shares their knowledge, often by writing books.

Hacker - Someone who breaks into or 'hacks' into the secure computer systems of an organization, especially websites and online systems, using online connection, often just as a technical challenge, or potentially with intent to steal, destroy, vandalise information, websites, etc.

Haggle - Negotiate with someone over the price of something until an agreeably mutual price is reached.

Hall Test - A term used when a group of people are gathered together at a particular location and asked to take part in market research.

Handbill - A small printed advertisement, usually on one sheet, often given out to people by hand.

Hands-Free - Term used when a telephone can be used without having to be held in the hand.

Hands-Off - A term often applied to managers who do not directly participate when dealing with a situation in the workplace by letting the people involved decide what they want to do.

Hard Selling - An aggressive type of selling which puts a lot of pressure on a prospective customer to buy a product or a service.

Harvesting - A term used when a product is still being sold, although it is no longer being invested in, prior to being withdrawn from the market.

Hashtag - A type of tag used on the social networking website Twitter and similar short messaging systems, sao that a word preceded by the hash symbol (#) may be found subsequently or otherwise organized, analyzed, displayed, etc.

Hawthorne Effect - Specifically the inclination of a group of workers to change their behaviour positively because they were being studied, irrespective of whether they were subjected to 'positive' or 'negative' conditions. First observed in studies by Elton Mayo at the Western Electric plant in Chicago, beginning 1928. The Hawthorne Effect basically established that attitude was more influenced by emotional rather than economic factors. See Hawthorne Effect summary.

Headhunt - To find a person who is specialised in a particular job, usually for a senior position in a company, and then persuade them to leave their present employment.

Health And Safety - Concerned with the protection of employees from risks and dangers in the workplace.

Health And Safety At Work Act - HSWA. In Britain, a 1974 act of Parliament which regulates and reinforces the health, safety and welfare of employees in the workplace.

Heatseeker - A person who, without fail, always buys the most up to date version of an existing product as soon as it comes onto the market.

Hedge Fund - A type of investment fund, which is unregulated and usually very high risk, used by individuals and organisations (not the general public) with large amounts of money to invest.

High Net Worth - Term which describes a rich individual or family who have investable assets of $1million or more, but this can vary. A person with more than $50million is classed as Ultra High Net Worth. (as at 2009)

Hire Purchase - HP. A contract between a buyer and seller in which the buyer takes possession of an item and then pays for it in regular instalments, usually monthly, and does not become the owner of the item until the final payment has been made. Also referred to as 'Buying on the never-never'.

Holding Company - A company which is formed for owning and holding controlling shares in other companies.

Hole in The Wall - An informal term for a cash dispensing machine, also called an ATM (automated teller machine).

Horizontal Integration - The joining together of businesses which produce similar goods or offer similar services, or are involved in the same stage of activities, such as production or selling.

Hot Desking - In an office, the practise of having a pool of desks, which are usually equipped with phone and computer links, so that workers can use them when they are required, rather than having their own individual desk.

Hothouse/Hothousing - Informal term for an intense development environment or method, or the verb equivalent, typically applied to training people or developing ideas or ventures; a metaphor alluding to a heated greenhouse for growing plants.

Human Resources - HR. The people who are employed by and operate a business or organisation. The department within a company which deals with recruitment, training, employee benefit, etc.

Hunt and Peck - Inexpert slow typing on a keyboard using only one or two fingers.

Hush Money - A bribe or payment, which is often illegal, given to someone to stop them from disclosing information, usually to prevent bad publicity or to hide a crime.

Hushmail - An internet service offering encypted email, file storage, etc.

Hyperbole - (Pronounced 'hy-per-bollee' - emphasis on the 'per' syllable) - Hyperbole is an extreme and figurative exaggeration or overstatement, which in strict grammatical terms is not generally expected to be taken seriously or interpreted literally, for example, "I've been waiting for ever for a bus," and yet where hyperbole is used for motivational or persuasive effect in business or politics, the technique very often intends to convey maximum impact on an audience, for example, "You'll never have another opportunity like this..." The word derives ultimately from the Greek root words: huper, over, and ballein, to throw.

Hyperinflation - An extraordinarily high rate of economic inflation during which a country's prices rise and currency loses its value uncontrollably in a vicious cycle, usually occurring during severe political instability or war. Normally inflation is measured in terms of a few percentage points increase per year - typically below 10% and sometimes approaching 20%. By contrast hyperinflation may be at a rates of tens of percentage points increase per month, and in extreme rare cases hundreds of percentage points per month. In this event, where prices can be doubling and currency values halving every few weeks (or days, in very rare situations), a country is forced to issue new banknote denominations of ludicrously high values, and within living memory news stories have featured workers collecting their wages in wheelbarrows.

Idea Showers - Usually called Brainstorming. A method of problem solving involving members of a group meeting and sharing ideas.

Identity Theft - A crime in which someone obtains another person's personal information, such as passport, credit card details, etc., and poses as that person in order to steal money, get benefits, make purchases, etc.

Idle Time - The time that a piece of equipment or a machine, such a as computer, is available, but is not being used.

Impeach - To charge somebody, usually a government official, with serious misconduct. To cast somebody out of public office, for example a president or courtroom judge because of a serious crime or misdemeanor.

Imperfect Market - A market in which buyers do not have access to enough information about prices and products, and where buyers or sellers can have an influence over the quantity and price of goods sold.

Impersonal Service at Customer's Site - this service usually involves working with the customer's property and seldom deals with factors that the customer deems confidential. Examples of this type of service would be: lawn service, typewriter repair, office cleaning, trucking service, etc.

Impersonal Service at Servicer's Site - this service usually involves working with the customer's property and seldom deals with factors that the customer deems confidential. The service is traditionally provided at the servicer's enterprise. Examples of this type of service would be: auto mechanic, TV repair, etc.

Impersonal Service, Volume - this type of service is usually designed such that the same service will satisfy the needs of all customers. It is often the case that the servicer and the customer never meet. Examples of this type of service would be: classified ads, storage lockers, money changers, etc.

Import Duty - A tax charged on certain goods which are brought into a country.

Impound - To seize and hold property, funds, etc., in custody (typically by a state-empowered authority), often during legal dispute.

Incapacity Benefit - A state benefit in the UK which is paid to people below pensionable age who have made National Insurance contributions, and who are too ill or disabled to work.

Incentive Marketing - The offering of rewards or gifts to sales people as an incentive to get more orders from dealers or customers. To offer customers rewards for buying products or services.

Income Fund - An investment fund with high returns which pays the owners a regular income.

Income Statement - (sometimes called Profit & Loss statement) a statement of revenues and expenses.

Income Tax - A tax paid by individuals to the government, the amount of which is dependent on how much a person earns from their salary and/or other sources of income.

Incubator - An organisation or company which provides support to new businesses to help them develop and grow.

Indemnify - To insure and offer financial protection against loss, damage or liability.

Independent Financial Advisor - (IFA) Someone who works independently, i.e., not for a particular company, and offers people advice about financial matters and recommends where to invest their money.

Index-Linked - Concerning salaries, pensions, investments, etc. If they are Index-Linked it means that the payments or income from these may vary according to the rate of inflation.

Indict - To formally charge someone with a crime.

Indirect Materials - In accounting, products or services, such as electricity, cleaning materials, chemicals, etc., which are used in the production of goods but are not part of the end product.

Induction - The introduction and training of a member of staff in a new job or position in a company.

Industrial Action - Also called a strike in the UK. Known in the US as Job Action. A protest by employees during which they refuse to work, usually because they want better wages and/or better working conditions.

Industrial Relations - Relations between the management and the workers, especially those in unions, in industry.

Industrial Tribunal - An independent judicial body which deals with disputes between employers and employees.

Industrialist - A person who owns or runs a large industrial enterprise. They are often referred to as a Business Magnate.

Inflation - Normally referring to the economy of a country, inflation is the gradual increase in the price of goods and/or services, and the consequential devaluing of the national currency. Inflation is typically up to 10%, or more unusually approaching 20% per year. Minimising inflation is normally a high priority within national fiscal policy since higher levels of inflation cause a variety of economic and business problems. See also deflation and hyperinflation.

Inflection Point - In business, when important significant changes take place in an organisation. (Andrew S. Grove - Intel)

Infomediary - An agent who works on behalf of a business, collecting information on, and developing profiles of, individual customers.

Infomercial - Information Commercial. A long television commercial presented in the form of a documentary or TV program. This format is used so that it does not appear to be selling a product or service.

Information Superhighway - Communications network, notably the Internet, which provides high speed access to information in the form of sound, text, images, etc.

Inheritance Tax - Also called Death Duty in the UK. Known as Death Tax in the US. A tax imposed by the government which much be paid on the total value of the estate of a deceased person.

Injunction - An official court order which demands that someone must refrain from carrying out certain actions.

Innovation - The introduction of new ideas, goods, etc., or new methods of production. A new way of doing something.

Inorganic - A term used to describe the growth of a business from mergers or takeovers, rather than from the increase in productivity or activity of the company's own business.

Inside Information - Information about a company which is known only by the owners, management and/or employees, and not the general public. The use of Inside Information for the buying and selling of shares is usually illegal.

Inside Track - An advantageous position in a company or organisation. To know about something before others get to hear about it.

Insolvency - Not having enough finances or assets available to pay all your debts.

Installation Goods - products requiring large and expensive capital investments that will have a long life. This could include homes, office buildings, manufacturing facilities, and other types of commercial facilities or equipment such as tractors, printing presses, cranes and robotic assembly line processors.

Instant Access Account - A bank or building society account which allows you have instant access to your money without any penalties.

Insurance Adjuster - Also known as a Claims Adjuster. An independent person who investigates insurance claims for an insurance company and evaluates the damage caused and decides whether the claims are valid, and if they are, how much should be paid in settlement to the insured party.

Intangible Asset - A company's assets which do not physically exist, such as brand name, trademarks, copyrights, etc.

Intangible Assets - non-physical assets such as patents, trademarks, a customer base, brand recognition of your products, etc. This is sometimes called goodwill.

Gautam Koppala,

POME Author

About the Author

GAUTAM KOPPALA, With over   a decade, track record of successful leadership, excellent results through strategic skills in driving revenue and profit growth. Demonstrated ability to identify and trouble shoot critical issues impacting productivity, cost, distribution, marketing, Strategic positioning, sales and financial operations, with innate ability to build and maintain strong client relationships in operations. Expert in distilling and managing processes, enhancing internal structures, and promoting multi-skilled team competencies via nurturing mentorship and inspirational leadership. Engagements have spanned operational, strategic, technological and change management roles. Academically, I am a cum laude graduate with a Bachelor of Technology degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (B-Tech E.E.E.) and a post graduate in Masters in Human Resources Management (M.H.R.M.) and Masters of Foreign Trade (M.F.T.). As you will see my Post Graduation's were been studied part-time, as well as working full-time as an Engineer. I feel that this demonstrates my ability to maintain dedication, motivation and enthusiasm for a project management over a long period of time. In addition, balancing full-time work with study has perfected my time-management and organizational skills. I believe that my college degrees and gamut certifications in combination with my extensive broad-based work experience along with my drive, resourcefulness and determination, would make me an excellent candidate for a senior management position with any company. Highlights of my background include Operations related Commercial, Supply chain, Sales with a magnificent experience in Project management, technically oriented towards Automation and Security Systems in Industrial and Building sectors. Presently, writing a book on Projects and Operations Management (comprise of 12 volumes, 6K pages), and awaited for the reputed publications. These books can be checked in Google books and other search engines too.

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